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Wednesday, April 8, 2020

supercomputer

supercomputer, supercomputer list, supercomputer examples, summit supercomputer, characteristics of supercomputers, supercomputer price, types of supercomputer, fastest supercomputer in the world list, features of supercomputer
supercomputer
What is a supercomputer, information about the definition, history, features and features of a supercomputer.

On hearing the name of a supercomputer, the brain starts thinking of a huge and fast computer. The desire to know about the form, color, shape, size, inventor etc. starts to be different.

History is witness that the early computers were equal to the size of a large room and many professional people were required to run them. The problem with handling hardware was a bonus.

However, advanced technology and the invention of integrated circuits, microprocessors over time, reduced the size and shape of the computer. And worked to increase its efficiency several million times.

Therefore, today the functionality of a smartphone has increased many times over the initial supercomputer. A powerful computer has arrived in our palm.

Now, I come to the point and what do you think is a supercomputer? When was the discovery of the supercomputer, who is the father of the supercomputer? Where is a supercomputer used? I answer the questions so that you have complete information about the supercomputer.

After all, you have come here for this reason.

Why right where?

Let's move forward. Along with this, I will also tell the difference between supercomputer and personal computer and will give information about the name, price and specification of the world's fastest supercomputer. To facilitate the study, the basic information guide of this supercomputer has been divided into the following parts.

What is a supercomputer?
The supercomputer is the world's most powerful computer used in the processing of complex mathematical and scientific calculations and high-level computing. Its performance is measured in FLOPS rather than MIPS. A supercomputer has thousands of CPUs that do billions of calculations simultaneously in a second. The CDC 6600 was the world's first supercomputer developed by the Honorable Seymour Cray.

Supercomputers have much more functionality than a general purpose computer. And the speed is also millions of times more so that complex mathematical calculations and equations can be solved in real time.

Thousands of CPUs work together in a supercomputer. Therefore, multitasking is a common feature of supercomputers. Because, they have been developed to handle many tasks simultaneously.

Supercomputers work on the principle of parallel and grid processing rather than serial processing. This means that it divides a task between different CPUs. Therefore, execution of the task becomes quick.

Parallel processing of supercomputers makes its computing capability fast and accurate. And these characteristics also fulfill the powerful computing needs of enterprises and organizations.

Brief History of Supercomputers - Brief History of Supercomputer
No single person has created this powerful computing machine. History is witness that from time to time different experts have contributed to give such complex and wonders their present form.

So, let's have a look at the history of supercomputers and find out how the supercomputer reached here.

Below I am telling about new discoveries and innovations in supercomputer technology from time to time.

1946: The world's first general-purpose computer ENIAC, which was 25 meters long and weighs 30 tons, was built at the University of Pennsylvania by the Honorable John Mauchly and H. Presser Eckert. Which was called the first scientific supercomputer.

1953: Defense calculator, the first general-purpose manframe computer, was developed by IBM. Based on this, IBM engineer Jean Amdahl built IBM 704 which could perform calculations of 5 KFLOPS.

1956: IBM developed the Stretch supercomputer for the Los Alamos National Laboratory, which remained the world's fastest supercomputer until 1964.

1957: An initiative to develop a fast, transistor-rich, high-performance computer was initiated by the Honorable Seymour Cray, co-founder of CDC (Control Data Corporation). And to further this step, introduced a supercomputer named CDC 1604. After this, in 1964 CDC 6600 Supercomputer was launched. These two computers had disturbed the sleep of the IBM. And the player who had challenged his monarch Raj had already signed.

1972: Cray abandons control data and sets up Cray Research to build high-end computers.

1976: First Cray-1 supercomputer installed at Los Alamos National Academy. Whose speed was 160 MFLOPS.

1979: A faster Cray computer was developed by Cray-1 after Cray-1. Which could perform calculations in speeds of 1.9 GFLOPS with eight CPUs. In Cray-2, the length of the wires decreased from 120 cm to 41 cm. That is, Cray has proved his C-Shaped Supercomputer concept.

1983: Thinking Machines Corporation unveils parallel connection machines (64,000 CPUs).

1989: Seymour Cray formed a company called Cray Computer to manufacture Cray-3 and Cray-4.

1990: This decade brought tightness for supercomputer manufacturers. And powerful RISC workstations, which were built by Silicon Graphics.

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1993: Fujitsu Numerical Wind Tunnel with 166 Vector Processors became the world's fastest supercomputer.

1994: The Thinking Machine declared itself bankrupt.

1995: The Cray computer also declared itself a bankruptcy. And within a year of this crisis i.e. on October 5, 1996, the father of the supercomputer, Honorable Seymour Cray, was absorbed. This year, Cray Research, the parent company of Cray, was acquired by Silicon Graphics.

1997: Supercomputer is built by Intel with Pentium processors and Sandia National Laboratories becomes the world's first TFLOPS supercomputer.

2008: Jaguar Supercomputer developed by Cray Research and Oak Ridge National Laboratory became the world's first petaflops (PFLOPS) supercomputer. Which was later defeated by companies in Japan and China.

2011-13: Jaguar was upgraded to Titan Titan Supercomputer which became the world's fastest supercomputer for a while. Which was defeated by China's fastest supercomputer Tianhe-2.

2014: European Consortium named Mont-Blanc announced the creation of an ExaFLOP (1018 FLOP) supercomputer from smartphones and tablets.

2017: Scientists of China announced the introduction of the exoplop supercomputer Namuna.

2018: IBM Summit 200-petaflop supercomputer installed at Oak Ridge in June 2018. Which remains the world's most powerful and fastest supercomputer till date.

Characteristics of Supercomputer

On hearing the name of the supercomputer, it is known that we are not talking about any ordinary computer here. Your personal computer does not stop anywhere. Let's know what are the characteristics of a supercomputer?

Supercomputers have a lot of size and weight. The space of many rooms is also reduced to keep them.

Their efficiency is very high. Because of which we do work out of human capabilities in hundreds of years. Simultaneously, they also perform complex mathematical calculations, scientific equations and 3D graphics.

Many users can work on a supercomputer simultaneously.
The supercomputer is the most expensive computer ever built. The price of which is far from the reach of a common computer users. Perhaps this is why only a few supercomputers can be created.
They have multiple CPUs. Which increases the speed and performance of supercomputers by parallel processing.
  • They can be operated in groups.
  • Maintenance is required to handle them.
  • Several gallons of water is consumed to keep cool.
  • Supercomputers are used only in scientific institutions, research institutes and medical institutions. They cannot be affirmed at ordinary places.
  • Advantages of Supercomputer
  • Increase efficiency
  • Complex calculations possible
  • Beneficial in medical research
  • Helpful in finding the secret of space
  • Break of human limits

# 1 Speed ​​Increase

Ordinary computers operate on the principle of serial processing. This means that he takes turns processing on a problem. Which takes a lot of time.

However, supercomputers deal with problems based on parallel processing. Therefore, the processing time becomes very short. Because, the supercomputer uses multi-processors to complete any task.

That is, the task is divided into several parts. And working on different parts, results are given simultaneously. Therefore, the processing time decreases.

You know that the supercomputer measures the speed in FLOPS i.e. Floating-point Operations Per Second. Which is many times faster than ordinary computer speed MIPS (Million Instructions Per Second).

Nowadays, supercomputers working at the speed of peta FLOPS have also developed. That is, the calculation that you spend 3,16,88,767 years, the Peta FLOPS supercomputer reduces it to just 1 second.

# 2 Complex calculations possible

Through supercomputers, we can do simple tasks that a personal computer is capable of doing.

You can send emails, search the web, play games, chat with your friends and also edit party photos.

However, supercomputers are not designed just for these tasks. They include complex scientific calculations, mathematically intensive scientific problems, including nuclear missile testing, weather forecasting, climate simulation, encryption power (computer security code).

Some supercomputers are also made for specific work. like; IBM's Deep Blue supercomputer machine, built in 1997, was developed only for playing chess. The purpose of which was to play chess against Russia's chess grand master Gary Kasparov and understand his future moves.

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# 3 Beneficial in medical research

Supercomputer in Medical Research
We humans have always been curious to know the secret of living beings. And to know the origin of life on our earth, we have reached the space.

Supercomputers are helping us in this task. And a new branch in Biology has given birth to Computational Biology. Under which riddles like the emergence of living beings and personal treatment to patients are being solved.

Serious research is being done on this branch on the structure and structure of molecules. Which is called Molecules Simulation in English.

# 4 Helpful in finding space secrets
In August 2017, a supercomputer named Spaceborne developed by HPE (Hewlett Packard Enterprise) was successfully brought back to Earth from the International Space Station (ISS).

What does it mean

This historical test lasted for a full 615 days and it took 8,900 rounds of our earth. During this time, the Spaceborne Supercomputer did its work smoothly. Which is enough to prove the power of supercomputing.

The computer has been a companion to space missions since the Soviet Union successfully launched two satellites in 1957. Therefore, the supercomputer has helped a lot in solving the kernels of space.

# 5 Break the human limit

We humans have very little functionality. By the way, the world's fastest and powerful supercomputer has also been built by us humans. But, the work done by him is beyond the capacity of the brain of us humans.

Therefore, supercomputers have made humans powerful and also increased their efficiency.



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